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Table 2 Endophytic fungi and mechanisms of phytopathogen management and disease suppression

From: Biocontrol mechanisms of endophytic fungi

Endophyte(s) Host plant Pathogen Mode of action (Biocontrol process) Inference Reference
Endophytic fungi belonging to genera, viz., Aspergillus, Botryotina, Colletrotrichum, Penicillium, etc Panax notoginseng Mycocentrospora acerina Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Alternaria panax, Phoma herbarum, Bioactive compounds production Endophytes isolated from P. notoginseng protected plants against root disease-causing organisms Zheng et al. (2017)
Cladosporium cladosporioides Zygophyllum mandavillei Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas oryzae, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani Antimicrobial metabolites, viz., 3-phenylpropionic acid, 1-acsetyl-17-methoxy aspidospermidin-20-ol, Isocladosporin, Cladosporin, etc 3-phenylpropionic acid was the most active compound against potential fungal and bacterial phytopathogens Yehia et al. (2020)
Cryptosporiopsis sp., Phialocephala sphareoides Picea abies Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora pini, Heterobasidium parviporum New antimicrobial metabolites were secreted by both endophytes P. sphareoides inhibited all pathogens with improved growth of the plant, while Cryptosporiopsis sp. gave a stronger inhibitory effect but retarded the root growth of Norway spruce Terhonen et al. (2016)
Trichoderma asperellum Lactuca sativa L Curvularia aeria, Corynespora cassiicola Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of highlighted pathogen(s) Baiyee et al. (2019)
Trichoderma viride Spilanthes pariculata Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani, Colletotrichum acutatum Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of highlighted pathogen(s) Talapatra et al. (2017)
Penicillium simplicissimum, Leptosphaeria sp. Gossypium arboretum L Verticillium dahlia Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of highlighted pathogen(s) Yuan et al. (2017)
Diaporthe sp., Leptosphaeria spp., Nigrospora oryzae Olea europaea L Colletotrichum acutatum Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of highlighted pathogen(s) Landum et al. (2016)
Fomitopsis sp., Fusarium solani, Nigrospora sphaerica, Purpureocillium lilacinum Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of highlighted pathogen(s) Yao et al. (2017)
  Cornus florida Macrophomina phaseolina, F. solani, F. oxysporum Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of highlighted pathogen(s) Mmbaga et al. (2018)
Trichoderma citrinoviridae Panax ginseng Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria panax, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium spp. Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of highlighted pathogen(s) Park et al. (2019)
Paenibacillus polymyxa Morinda citrifolia L Aspergillus aculeatus Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of highlighted pathogen(s) Liu et al. (2018)
Rhizopycnis vagnum Zingiber officinale Rosc Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of highlighted pathogen(s) Anisha et al. (2018)
Paraconiothyrium variabile Cephalotaxus harringtonia Fusarium oxysporum The Biocontrol process include the production of metabolites, viz., 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid, beauvericin Metabolites produced from endophyte showed inhibitory effect against F. oxysporum Combès et al. (2012)
Induratia coffeana, I. yucatanensis Phaseolus vulgaris L Peudocercospora griseola, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum lindermuthianum Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Both species of Induratia control diseases caused by the three pathogens on common beans Mota et al. (2021)
Hypoxylon anthochroum, Nodulisporium spp. Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Fusarium oxysporum Volatile organic compounds synthesized include; Phenylethyl alcohol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, ocimene, terpinolene, etc VOC showed antifungal activity both in planta and in vitro assessment Medina-Romero et al. (2017)
Fungal genus from Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium Cannabis sativa L Botrytis cinerea, Trichothecium roseum Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of phytopathogens Kusari et al. (2013)
Diaporthe citri Mikania glomerata Spreng Fusarium solani, Didymella bryoniae Antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism Endophytes induced antimicrobial activity against both pathogens Polonio et al. (2015)
Bipolaris sp., Fusarium sp., Phoma sp., etc Vitis labrusca L Alternaria spp., Glomerella spp., Sphaceloma spp. Antibiosis, parasitism, and production of lytic enzymes Biological control agents help in the control of phytopathogens Felber et al. (2016)
Muscodor yucatonensis, Penicillium commune, A. oryzae Monarda citriodora Sclerotina spp., Colletotrichum capsica, A. flavus, A. fumigatus Antagonistic activity by direct contact suspected to have bioactive compounds Endophytes showed biocontrol activity against highlighted pathogens Katoch and Pull (2017)
Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Phoma herbarum, Schizophyllum commune Piper hispidum Sw Alternaria alternata,    
Colletotrichum spp., Phyllosticta citricorpa, Moniliophthora perniciosa P. herbarum and S. commune produce proteolytic enzymes Both endophytes had a high enzymatic halo and were able to protect the plant against pathogens Orlandelli et al. (2015)   
Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., Pichia spp., Postalotiopsis sp., Xylaria sp. Camellia oleifera Anthracnose phytopathogenic fungus Mycoparasitism Endophytes inhibited the growth of pathogens (especially Oidium sp.) Yu et al. (2018)
Aporospora terricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Bjerkandera adusta, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Flavodon flavus, Vitis labrusca L Fusarium oxysporum f. spp. herbemontis Antibiosis against plant pathogens Both F. flavus and C. gloeosporioides showed antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum Brum et al. (2012)
Cladosporium sp., Ophiognomonia sp., Trichoderma sp., etc Coffea arabica L. cultivar IAPAR-59 Glomerella spp. (CNPUV 378), Colletotrichum spp., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Antagonistic effect against phytopathogens Endophytes inhibit the growth of pathogens Bongiorno et al. (2016)
Muscodor coffeanum, M. vitigenus, M. yucatanensis, Simplicillium sp. Coffea arabica Rhizoctonia solani (LAPS 369), Fusarium oxysporum (LAPS 152), Phoma spp. (DFP 01), F. solani (LAPS 298), F. verticillioides (CML 1896), Cercospora coffeicola (CML 2984), Pestalotia longisetula (DFP 02), A. ochraceus (SCM 1.15) Volatile organic compounds produced VOC produced by endophytes, which helps to inhibit the growth of pathogens Monteiro et al. (2017)
Diaporthe citri, Phomopsii spp. Sapindus Saponaria L Fusarium solani, Glomerella spp., Moniliophthora perniciosa Amylase, pectinase, and cellulase produced Phyto-protective properties of these compounds were observed against pathogens Santos et al. (2019)