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Table 1 Classification of fungal endophytes

From: Biocontrol mechanisms of endophytic fungi

Mode of classification (MOC) Type-based on MOC Characteristics Plant host Specific endophytic fungi References
Ecology Clavicipitaceous They are associated with sedges and grasses; they phylogenetically belong to the hypocreales family. They help to protect the host plants against insects who feed on them Hypocreales family (Grasses and sedges) Balansia spp., Acremonium coenophialum, Epichloe spp., Neotyphodium coenophialum, and Epichloe festucae Rodriguez et al. (2009), Khiralla et al. (2016), Sravani et al. (2020)
  Non- Clavicipitaceous They are majorly associated with conifers, ferns, and non-vascular plants Non-vascular plants, ferns, and conifers Fusarium culmorum, T. diccocoides, Curvularia protuberate, Colletotrichum spp. and A. sharonensis Llorens et al. (2019)
Mode of reproduction Sexual These fungi reproduce sexually; their stomata which are produced during sexual reproduction, reduce seed and flower production, a condition referred to as “choke” in grasses Angiosperm trees, such as Picea abies Ph. nodosa, Acer saccharum, Epichloe spp., Ph. Piceae and Ph. Scopiformis, Schardl and Craven (2003), Schardl et al. (2004), Tanney et al. (2016), Li et al. (2017), Bamisile et al. (2018), Hume et al. (2020)
  Asexual This group of endophytes shows no symptoms in plants: however, they colonize plant embryos and thus could be transmitted through the plant seeds Ericaceous plants (such as Empetrum nigrum, Calluna vulgaris, Vacci-nium myrtillus) and coniferous trees (such as Picea spp., Pinus spp., and Abies spp.) Phialocephala dimorphospora, Ph. scopiformis, Neotyphodium spp., Ph. Fortinii, and Ph. sphaeroides Schardl and Craven (2003), Schardl et al. (2004), Tanney et al. (2016), Li et al. (2017), Bamisile et al. (2018), Hume et al. (2020)
Mode of transmission Vertically transmitted It involves the transmission of fungi through the seeds of plants. There are often differences in the proportion of the offspring of plants that carry the seeds, also, there could be variation in the concentration of the mycelia and secondary compounds present in the seeds Grasses, e.g., switch grass, Rumex acetosa, Senecio vulgaris, C. nigra, Plantago lanceolata, Papaver rhoeas, and Centaurea cyanus Epichloë spp., A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum Hodgson et al. (2014), Gundel et al. (2017)
  Horizontally transmitted The majority of the fungi in this group are natural inhabitants of the soil from which they get into the plants. However, they could be transmitted through the air or air-borne spores Panicum rigidulum Lolium perenne Balansia henningsiana Neotyphodium lolii Ren and Clay (2009), Wiewióra et al. (2015)
Sources of nutrition Biotrophs They derive their nutrients from the tissue of living matters Oryza sativa Aspergillus spp., Magnaporthe oryzae, Penicillium Chrysogenum, and Hymenochaete sp. Su et al. (2013)
  Necrotrophs They kill the host cells and live in them Syngonium podophyllum Bjerkandera fumosa, Phanerochaetaceae spp., Phlebiopsis flavidoalba and Hymenochaete ustulata García-Guzmán et al. (2017)
Expression of infection Symptomatic They cause diseases in plants and show symptoms Vitis vinifera Acremonium spp., Cadophora spp., Coniothyrium spp., Fomitiporia spp., Hypoxylon spp., Paecilomyces spp., and Paraphoma spp. Nerva et al. (2019)
  Asymptomatic They cause diseases in plants and show no symptoms Vitis vinifera Leptosphaeriulina spp., Microdiplodia spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Fusarium spp., and Myrothecium spp. Nerva et al. (2019)
Body part attacked Foliar They exist on the leaves and stems of plants Theobroma cacao Colletotrichum tropicale Christian et al. (2017), Christian et al. (2019)
  Root They are generally found in the root of plants Phoenix dactylifera Aspergillus tubingensis, Corynespora cassiicola, Clonostachys rosea, Penicillium commune, Beauveria bassiana, Fusarium solani, Campanella olivaceonigra, Phomopsis lagerstroemiae, Ilyonectria radicicola, Aspergillus sclerotiorum Phomopsis lagerstroemiae, and Fusarium equiseti Mahmoud et al. (2017)