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Table 1 Long-term effects of feeding Neoseiulus cucumeris on Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Tetranychus urticae, and Ephestia kuehniella on the duration of different life stages (days), fecundity (eggs/female) and immature survival (%) (Mean ± SE)

From: Cost-effective and efficient factitious prey for mass production of Neoseiulus cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae): assessing its quality compared with natural prey

Parameter

Tyrophagus putrescentiae

Tetranychus urticae

Ephestia kuehniella

G1

G10

G20

G30

G1

G10

G20

G30

G1

Egg

2.26 ± 0.162aA

1.77 ± 0.169bA

2.52 ± 0.173aA

2.26 ± 0.135aA

2.41 ± 0.116aA

2.09 ± 0.177aA

2.38 ± 0.142aA

2.29 ± 0.181aA

2.43 ± 0.113

Larva

1.07 ± 0.072abA

1.05 ± 0.044bA

1.30 ± 0.096aA

1.00 ± 0.000bA

1.00 ± 0.00aA

1.47 ± 0.462aA

1.00 ± 0.00aB

1.00 ± 0.00aA

1.00 ± 0.000

Protonymph

2.92 ± 0.144aA

2.09 ± 0.061bA

2.00 ± 0.064bA

2.00 ± 0.000bA

2.10 ± 0.064aB

2.32 ± 0.131aA

1.83 ± 0.099bA

2.06 ± 0.064aA

6.80 ± 0.341

Deutonymph

4.43 ± 0.349aA

1.86 ± 0.097bA

1.90 ± 0.067bA

1.92 ± 0.056bA

1.7 ± 0.103bB

2.16 ± 0.181aA

1.86 ± 0.098abA

1.75 ± 0.126abA

7.50 ± 0.411

Pre-adult

10.71 ± 0.408aA

6.77 ± 0.231cB

7.70 ± 0.257bA

7.13 ± 0.170bcA

7.25 ± 0.157aB

7.5 ± 0.240aA

7.09 ± 0.191aA

6.92 ± 0.187aA

15.50 ± 1.317

Male longevity

38.12 ± 4.122aA

33.65 ± 3.593aA

18.33 ± 1.593bB

35.19 ± 3.631aA

22.5 ± 4.950aB

25.6 ± 2.594aA

26.33 ± 3.064aA

30.83 ± 3.691aA

Female longevity

61.19 ± 7.264aA

52.15 ± 5.180aA

36.41 ± 4.380bA

48.44 ± 4.255aA

28.68 ± 3.396aB

25.0 ± 2.567aB

25.23 ± 2.485aB

25.33 ± 3.999aB

5.50 ± 2.241

Total life span

54.62 ± 5.719aA

44.58 ± 3.853aA

31.92 ± 3.706bA

42.38 ± 3.091aA

27.45 ± 2.862aB

25.17 ± 1.915aB

25.68 ± 1.885aA

28.08 ± 2.657aB

21.00 ± 3.470

APOP

4.00 ± 0.288aA

2.54 ± 0.141bA

4.43 ± 0.961abA

2.15 ± 0.102cA

3.4 ± 0.424aA

2.75 ± 0.446aA

2.62 ± 0.208aA

2.5 ± 0.219aA

TPOP

14.60 ± 0.540aA

9.85 ± 0.310bcA

11.78 ± 1.038bA

9.15 ± 0.268cA

10.8 ± 0.506aB

10.25 ± 0.637aA

9.69 ± 0.171aB

9.83 ± 0.393aA

Oviposition period

19.53 ± 2.730abA

24.00 ± 1.731aA

13.58 ± 1.705bA

24.69 ± 1.402aA

15.2 ± 2.390aA

9.75 ± 1.797aB

12.08 ± 1.591aA

13.5 ± 3.750aA

Fecundity

27.27 ± 3.872bA

44.69 ± 3.129aA

18.27 ± 2.620bA

47.91 ± 2.465aA

27.56 ± 4.366aA

9.92 ± 2.811bB

22.76 ± 2.897aA

24.67 ± 7.019aB

Immature survival (%)

77 ± 0.080bA

100 ± 0.000aA

80 ± 0.008bA

88 ± 0.060abA

83 ± 0.076aA

86 ± 0.076aA

91 ± 0.056aA

71 ± 0.110aA

7.00 ± 0.301

  1. G generation, APOP adult pre-oviposition period, TPOP total pre-oviposition period (from egg to first oviposition)
  2. Means followed by different capital letters within the same row are comparisons between the corresponding generations of two diets. The means followed by different small letters within the same row are comparisons among different generations of each diet (P < 0.05, paired-bootstrap)