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Table 1 Impact of Vip3Aa and boric acid on the biology of immature Propylea japonica

From: Evaluating the effects of Bt protein Vip3Aa on immature Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Treatment Pupation (%)a Emergence (%)a Larval duration (d ± SE)b Adult fresh weight (mg ± SE)b
Male Female
Control (Negative) 60 (42)a 100 (42)a 10.21 ± 1.14 (52)a 2.66 ± 0.09 (19)a 3.75 ± 0.69 (23)a
Vip3Aa 57 (40)a 85 (34)a 12.70 ± 0.88 (40)b 2.87 ± 0.12 (17) a 3.86 ± 0.32 (17)a
Boric acid (Positive)
Control vs Vip3Aa x2 = 2.00
df = 2
p = 0.1368
x2 = 4.00
df = 2
p = 0.135
Z = − 7.81
P = 0.000
Z = − 1.73
P = 0.087
Z =—1.51
P = 0.130
  1. Same letters in the column indicate the mean are significantly similar while with different letters indicate significant difference among treatments. However all larvae died in positive control indicated in table as –. Therefore this treatment is excluded from the analysis
  2. aChi-square test
  3. bMann–Whitney U test