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Table 2 Mycotoxins produced by fungi that cause postharvest diseases on citrus and subtropical fruits and their effects

From: Biological control strategy for postharvest diseases of citrus, apples, grapes and strawberries fruits and application in Indonesia






Effects on humans


Fusarium sp.

Deoxynivalenol, T2 toxin, zearalenone, moniliformin,


Rahayu (2006)

Acute temporary nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and fever

Sobrova et al. (2010)

Aspergillus terreus

Citreoviridin, terreic acid, patulin

Rahayu (2006)

Aspergillosis, respiratory and circulatory failure, paralysis, seizures and death

Lass-Florl et al. (2005)

Aspergillus sp.

Aflatoxins, kojic acid, aspergillic acid, cyclopiazonic acid, patulin, stereoviridin, fumigatin, ochratoxins, sterigmatocystin, viriditoxin, citrinin, palmotoxin, rubratoxin

Rahayu (2006)

Carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive for humans

Lanier et al. (2020)

Penicillium sp.

Patulin, ochratoxin, citrinin, luteoskirin, tremorgenic, rubratoxin, mycophenolate, griseofulvin, phenytoin, colonic acid

Rahayu (2006)

Plasma membrane disruption; protein synthesis inhibition; Na+-coupled inhibition; amino acid transport, transcription and translation disorders; DNA synthesis inhibition; and inhibition in the production of interferon γ type 1 T-helper cells

Pal et al. (2017), Ramalingam et al. (2019)

Alternaria sp.

Tenuazonic acid

Rahayu (2006)

Causing Onyalai disease, causing chronic and acute effects by inhibiting anti-tumor, antiviral, antibacterial activities, and causing mutagenic activities

Zain (2011)