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Table 2 Mycotoxins produced by fungi that cause postharvest diseases on citrus and subtropical fruits and their effects

From: Biological control strategy for postharvest diseases of citrus, apples, grapes and strawberries fruits and application in Indonesia

Pathogen Mycotoxin Effects
Mycotoxin References Effects on humans References
Fusarium sp. Deoxynivalenol, T2 toxin, zearalenone, moniliformin,
Rahayu (2006) Acute temporary nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and fever Sobrova et al. (2010)
Aspergillus terreus Citreoviridin, terreic acid, patulin Rahayu (2006) Aspergillosis, respiratory and circulatory failure, paralysis, seizures and death Lass-Florl et al. (2005)
Aspergillus sp. Aflatoxins, kojic acid, aspergillic acid, cyclopiazonic acid, patulin, stereoviridin, fumigatin, ochratoxins, sterigmatocystin, viriditoxin, citrinin, palmotoxin, rubratoxin Rahayu (2006) Carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive for humans Lanier et al. (2020)
Penicillium sp. Patulin, ochratoxin, citrinin, luteoskirin, tremorgenic, rubratoxin, mycophenolate, griseofulvin, phenytoin, colonic acid Rahayu (2006) Plasma membrane disruption; protein synthesis inhibition; Na+-coupled inhibition; amino acid transport, transcription and translation disorders; DNA synthesis inhibition; and inhibition in the production of interferon γ type 1 T-helper cells Pal et al. (2017), Ramalingam et al. (2019)
Alternaria sp. Tenuazonic acid Rahayu (2006) Causing Onyalai disease, causing chronic and acute effects by inhibiting anti-tumor, antiviral, antibacterial activities, and causing mutagenic activities Zain (2011)