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Table 4 Mortality percentage of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus treated with Bt-k (70 µg g−1), Beauveria bassiana (1 × 107 conidia ml−1) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (300 IJs ml−1) applied alone or in combination after 21 days of exposure

From: Biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes and bacteria against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)

Stage Treatments Insect populations
Layyah R.Y. Khan Muzaffargarh D.G. Khan F P
Larvae Bt-k 58.36 ± 4.55d 54.66 ± 4.46c 46.86 ± 4.53d 49.78 ± 2.45c 1.55 0.22
Bb 72.63 ± 3.88c 66.79 ± 3.45c 57.27 ± 2.75 cd 55.55 ± 2.92c 6.04  ≤ 0.05
EPN 84.54 ± 2.71bc 81.06 ± 3.14b 70.45 ± 3.19bc 73.92 ± 2.74b 4.75  ≤ 0.05
Bt-k + Bb 87.01 ± 3.04b 82.17 ± 2.90b 75.77 ± 4.75b 78.24 ± 2.39b 2.09 0.12
Bt-k + EPN 100.00 ± 0.00a 98.41 ± 1.58a 93.35 ± 3.06a 95.57 ± 2.85a 1.75 0.17
Bb + EPN 100.0 ± 0.00a 100.0 ± 0.00a 100.0 ± 0.00a 100.0 ± 0.00a
F 29.8 34.9 35.5 69.0
P  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05
Adults Bt-k 39.04 ± 2.41d 32.56 ± 3.80d 26.79 ± 3.68f 30.74 ± 2.96f 2.45 0.08
Bb 47.55 ± 2.60d 43.07 ± 4.15d 38.13 ± 4.09e 36.12 ± 3.31e 2.03 0.12
EPN 61.13 ± 3.81c 58.15 ± 3.25c 52.37 ± 2.20d 54.35 ± 1.82d 1.83 0.16
Bt-k + Bb 80.53 ± 2.66b 76.69 ± 3.11b 67.96 ± 3.92c 71.04 ± 3.18c 2.99  ≤ 0.05
Bt-k + EPN 94.24 ± 2.28a 90.03 ± 2.82a 81.27 ± 2.28b 86.48 ± 1.46b 5.88  ≤ 0.05
Bb + EPN 100.0 ± 0.00a 100.0 ± 0.00a 100.0 ± 0.00a 100.0 ± 0.00a
F 95.3 70.9 80.5 130
  P  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05
  1. Mortality% followed by the same letter within each treatment and insect populations are not significantly different; HSD test P ≤ 0.05 (Bt-k: Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bb: Beauveria bassiana, EPN: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora)