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Table 3 Mortality percentage of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus treated with Bt-k (70 µg g−1), Beauveria bassiana (1 × 107 conidia ml−1) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (300 IJs ml−1) applied alone or in combination after 14 days of exposure

From: Biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes and bacteria against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)

Stage Treatments Insect populations
Layyah D.G. Khan Muzaffargarh R.Y. Khan F P
Larvae Bt-k 22.50 ± 1.58c 20.67 ± 1.39c 17.70 ± 1.08c 19.50 ± 1.23c 0.43 0.73
Bb 31.02 ± 1.81c 27.76 ± 1.85c 23.39 ± 1.92c 25.64 ± 1.08c 0.59 0.62
EPN 60.38 ± 2.71b 55.66 ± 2.44b 49.22 ± 2.65b 51.57 ± 2.18b 1.38 0.26
Bt-k + Bb 65.24 ± 3.10b 59.10 ± 2.18b 52.55 ± 2.77b 55.09 ± 3.07b 3.39  ≤ 0.05
Bt-k + EPN 89.66 ± 3.26a 83.10 ± 3.72a 74.57 ± 3.14a 78.42 ± 3.87a 4.07  ≤ 0.05
Bb + EPN 97.37 ± 2.73a 91.55 ± 3.27a 82.68 ± 3.86a 86.17 ± 3.03a 3.67  ≤ 0.05
F 86.2 73.1 46.3 60.3
P  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05
Adults Bt-k 17.40 ± 1.46c 15.78 ± 1.04c 12.01 ± 0.88c 13.76 ± 1.07c 0.73 0.54
Bb 24.07 ± 1.50c 21.85 ± 1.28c 17.85 ± 1.33 cd 20.52 ± 1.32c 0.37 0.77
EPN 45.06 ± 2.48b 40.40 ± 1.65b 34.54 ± 2.03bc 37.62 ± 1.99b 0.93 0.43
Bt-k + Bb 52.54 ± 2.49b 48.01 ± 2.14b 39.98 ± 2.19b 43.27 ± 2.75b 2.56 0.07
Bt-k + EPN 72.37 ± 3.21a 67.77 ± 3.10a 61.64 ± 2.93a 65.80 ± 2.57a 1.48 0.23
Bb + EPN 81.29 ± 3.37a 75.74 ± 3.34a 64.43 ± 3.06a 70.18 ± 2.28a 3.87  ≤ 0.05
F 50.5 42.1 27.9 41.8
  P  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05
  1. Mortality% followed by the same letter within each treatment and insect populations are not significantly different; HSD test P ≤ 0.05 (Bt-k: Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bb: Beauveria bassiana, EPN: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora)