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Table 2 Mortality percentage of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus populations treated with Bt-k (70 µg g−1), Beauveria bassiana (1 × 107 conidia ml−1) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (300 IJs ml−1) applied alone or in combination after 7 days of exposure

From: Biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes and bacteria against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)

Stage Treatments Motility%
Layyah D.G. Khan Muzaffargarh R.Y. Khan F P
Larvae Bt-k 9.47 ± 0.78e 6.47 ± 0.55d 6.08 ± 0.78d 7.93 ± 0.71e 0.38 0.77
Bb 13.48 ± 1.18de 10.47 ± 1.12 cd 8.39 ± 1.01 cd 11.68 ± 1.16de 0.30 0.82
EPN 25.57 ± 1.39 cd 21.57 ± 1.38bc 19.58 ± 1.17bc 23.45 ± 1.13 cd 0.62 0.60
Bt-k + Bb 32.28 ± 1.61bc 28.36 ± 1.46ab 25.06 ± 1.30b 30.17 ± 1.65bc 1.28 0.29
Bt-k + EPN 45.37 ± 2.15ab 33.73 ± 1.50ab 28.08 ± 1.57ab 42.11 ± 2.36ab 6.46  ≤ 0.05
Bb + EPN 51.68 ± 2.34a 42.19 ± 2.51a 39.40 ± 2.14a 46.82 ± 2.54a 2.05 0.12
F 24.8 30.5 18.8 14.4
P  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05
Adults Bt-k 6.54 ± 0.70d 4.69 ± 0.49d 4.02 ± 0.53c 5.46 ± 0.74d 0.24 0.87
Bb 10.46 ± 1.12d 8.41 ± 0.87 cd 7.56 ± 1.04bc 9.29 ± 1.09 cd 0.16 0.92
EPN 19.18 ± 1.24 cd 14.90 ± 1.01bcd 13.22 ± 1.35bc 16.51 ± 1.21 cd 0.72 0.54
Bt-k + Bb 24.70 ± 1.65bc 21.24 ± 1.96abc 19.69 ± 1.56ab 22.06 ± 1.56bc 0.31 0.81
Bt-k + EPN 35.41 ± 2.35ab 28.84 ± 2.11ab 27.09 ± 1.75b 31.52 ± 2.13ab 0.90 0.45
Bb + EPN 39.73 ± 2.09a 32.37 ± 2.03a 30.89 ± 2.05a 36.08 ± 2.45a 1.38 0.26
F 19.2 8.90 12.4 14.4
  P  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05  ≤ 0.05
  1. Mortality% followed by the same letter within each treatment and insect populations are not significantly different; HSD test P ≤ 0.05 (Bt-k: Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Bb: Beauveria bassiana, EPN: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora)