Skip to main content

Table 5 Evaluation of simultaneous exposure and interaction among chemical nematicide, bacteria, botanicals, and fungi against the root-knot development of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants under greenhouse conditions

From: Integrated management of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato using combinations of abamectin, Purpureocillium lilacinum, rhizobacteria, and botanicals compared with nematicide

Treatments Root parameters Soil parameters
No. of galls No. of egg masses Root gall index (RGI) Nematode population density (J2) 100 g soils/plant/pot
    Final population (% reduction) Reproduction factor (RF = Pf/Pi)
Infected tomato plants 48.20a 53.80a 4.00 456.00 2.28
Rhizobacteria + Purpureocillium lilacinum 21.20e 34.80cd 3 304.20cd (33.28) 1.52
Citrullus colocynthis + Moringa oleifera + Tagetes erecta 38.40b 46.00b 4 339.60b (25.52) 1.69
Treated plants with chemical nematicides: abamectin + emmectin benzoate 32.80c 39.40c 2.6 344.00b (24.56) 1.72
Abamectin + Purpureocillium lilacinum 6.60g 18.20e 2.00 116.60 h (74.42) 0.58
Emmectin benzoate + Purpureocillium lilacinum 11.40fg 20.40e 2.40 326.00bc (28.50) 1.63
Abamectin + Rhizobacteria 15.60f 23.80e 2.40 209.00f (54.16) 1.04
Emmectin benzoate + Rhizobacteria 25.60de 31.80d 3.00 246.00e (46.05) 1.23
Botanical extracts (Citrullus colocynthis + Moringa oleifera + Tagetes erecta) + Rhizobacteria 31.40cd 42.60c 3.60 354.00b (22.36) 1.78
Botanical extracts (Citrullus colocynthis + Moringa oleifera + Tagetes erecta) + Purpureocillium lilacinum 29.20cd 37.80c 3.20 246.00e (46.05) 1.23
  1. Each value is the mean of five replicates
  2. Means in each column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different at 5% level of probability according to Duncan’s multiple range tests
  3. \( \mathsf{Reduction}\%=\frac{\mathsf{Control}-\mathsf{treatment}\kern0.5em }{\mathsf{Control}}\times \mathsf{100} \)