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Table 4 Individual effects of abamectin, emmectin benzoate, colocynth, marigold, moringa, rhizobacteria, and Purpureocillium lilacinum on galls and reproduction of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants under greenhouse conditions

From: Integrated management of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato using combinations of abamectin, Purpureocillium lilacinum, rhizobacteria, and botanicals compared with nematicide

Treatments Meloidogyne incognita reproduction and galling parameters
No. of IJs/100 g soil (% reduction) No. of galls (% reduction) RGI No. egg masses (% reduction) Large size galls (≥ 4 mm)
Healthy plants 0.00g 0.00g 0.00f 0.00f 0.00f
Positive control infected with RNK M. incognita 352.00a 48.20a 4.00a 53.80a 23.20a
M. incognita + abamectin 88.20f 10.80f 2.40e 15.80e 2.00f
(74.94) (77.59)   (70.63)  
M. incognita + emmectin benzoate 195.00d 27.20e 3.00cd 32.60d 14.20bc
(44.60) (43.56)   (39.40)  
M. incognita + colocynth, Citrullus colocynthis 252.60b 40.20b 4.00a 48.20b 15.60bc
(28.23) (16.59)   (10.40)  
M. incognita + marigold, Tagetes erecta 284.80b 36.40bc 3.80a 42.40cd 12.20cd
(19.09) (24.48)   (21.18)  
M. incognita + moringa, Moringa oleifera 287.80b 34.60cd 3.60ab 41.60cd 16.20b
(18.23) (28.21)   (22.67)  
M. incognita + Serratia and Pseudomonas 210.00c 32.80d 3.20bc 34.80d 17.60b
(40.34) (31.95)   (35.31)  
M .incognita + Purpureocillium lilacinum 144.40e 12.60f 2.60de 15.40e 7.00e
(58.97) (73.85)   (71.37)  
  1. 0, no galls or egg masses; 1, 1–2 galls or egg masses; 2, 3–10 galls or egg masses; 3, 11–30 galls or egg masses; 4, 31–100 galls or egg masses; and 5, more than 100 galls or egg masses, according to the scale given by Taylor and Sasser (1978)
  2. Figures in parenthesis refer to the percentage of reduction
  3. Each value is the mean of five replicates
  4. Means in each column followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different at 5% level of probability according to Duncan’s multiple range tests
  5. \( \mathsf{Reduction}\%=\frac{\mathsf{Control}-\mathsf{treatment}\kern0.5em }{\mathsf{Control}}\times \mathsf{100} \)