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Table 1 Life cycle events in the nematode-bacteria symbiosis

From: Opportunities and challenges of entomopathogenic nematodes as biocontrol agents in their tripartite interactions

Stage Nematode life cycle Bacteria life cycle
I IJ free living in soil, searches for insect host, finds the host, and enters into it. Retention of bacteria in the gut of nematode.
II (early) Recovery in the hemocoel. Release of bacteria into insect hemolymph; virulence factors resulting in mortality of insect host.
II (late) Nematode reproduction. Bacteria in stationary phase; production of antibiotics, exo-enzymes, crystal proteins; bioconversion of insect.
III New IJs development Bacteria colonize in the intestine of IJs.
  1. Source: Forst and Clarke (2002)