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Table 3 Synergism of insect virus and in combination with botanicals

From: Botanical biopesticide combination concept—a viable option for pest management in organic farming

Combination Pest targeted Effect Source
SpliNPV + Neemazal-T S. litura Increased the infectivity of SpliNPV by 2.9-fold EI-Salamouny et al. (1997)
SlNPV 104 PIBs/mL + NSKE (0.25%) + neem oil (0.25%) S.litura 100% mortality of all 5 stages of larvae and also adult Murugan et al. (1999)
SlNPV + neem oil/NSKE S. litura Reduced LC50 value of SlNPV by 1.05 to 1.43/1.03 to 1.33-folds Muralibaskaran et al. (1999)
AgseGV + neem @ 10 ppm A. ipsilon neonate larvae Decrease of the LC50 value from 3.59 × 107 in the virus alone to 7.11 × 106 capsules/mL Elnagar et al. (2004)
HaNPV at 103 PIB/mL + azadirachtin at 0.1 ppm H. armigera LT100 for 3rd instar larvae reduced to 72 h (for NPV and AZA, it was 168 and 120 h, respectively). Kumar et al. (2008)
PbGV + petroleum-ether extract of neem seed kernel (NSK) P. brassicae Maximum reduction of LC50 value (4.39 × 102 occlusion bodies [OBs] mL−1) as compared with PbGV alone (1.85 × 104 OBs mL−1) Bhandari et al. (2009)
HaNPV at 500 LE/ha + Neemarin (0.15%) at 700 mL/ha H. armigera larva on tomato 86.41% mortality of larva Kumari (2012)