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Table 2 Some botanicals and entomopathogenic fungi combinations

From: Botanical biopesticide combination concept—a viable option for pest management in organic farming

Combination Pest targeted Effect Source
P. fumosoroseus + azadirachtin Whitefly (laboratory bioassay) 20% extra nymphal mortality is observed, but azadirachtin has an inhibitory effect on fungi James (2003)
B. bassiana + Neemix (4.5% azadirachtin) Tribolium castaneum Delays pupation but reduces mortality of pest Akbar et al. (2005)
P.lilacinus + neem cake/Tagetus erecta extract Meloidogyne incognita Reduced root gall index from 5 to 1 Sundraraju and Kiruthika (2009)
B. bassiana + Citrus vulgaris essential oil Ephestia kuehniella Highest synergism ratio of 1:20 Shakarami et al. (2015)
L. muscarium (0.8 × 108 conidia/mL) + matrine (0.75 mg/L) Bemisia tabaci 98.31% mortality Ali et al. (2017)
B. bassiana + eucalyptus extract Sitobion avenae Mortality rate (87%), the lowest fecundity (7 nymphs per female) was recorded Ali et al. (2018)
M.anisopliae (1 × 106 CFU mL−1 or 1 × 108 CFU mL−1) + pyrethrum (10 ppm) Bean aphid, Aphis fabae At 1 × 106 CFU mL−1 survival was reduced by 29.2 h through addition of pyrethrum (from 67.3 h to 35.3 h), and by 10 h at 1 × 108 CFU mL−1 Fernández-Grandon et al. (2020)