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Table 2 Phytotoxicity and effects of culture filtrates of Alternaria alternata YMM1, Chaetomium globosum YMM2, Alternaria tenuissima YMM3, and Nigrospora oryzae YMM4 on weeds

From: Potential of phytopathogenic fungal isolates as a biocontrol agent against some weeds

Weed Fungal filtrate Radical length (cm) ± SE Plumule height (cm) ± SE Germination (%) ± SE Phytotoxicity (%) ± SE
Rumex dentatus Control 1.30 ± 0.03a 2.50 ± 0.06a 100.0 ± 1.10a 0.0 ± 0.0d
YMM1 0.90 ± 0.02b 1.60 ± 0.03b 90.00 ± 1.15b 80 ± 1.63a
YMM2 0.60 ± 0.02cd 1.20 ± 0.05c 90.00 ± 1.73b 79 ± 1.41a
YMM3 0.70 ± 0.05c 1.30 ± 0.03c 99.63 ± 0.32a 38.7 ± 1.89b
YMM4 0.50 ± 0.03d 0.60 ± 0.04d 06.00 ± 0.29c 19 ± 1.41c
Avena fatua Control 9.00 ± 0.12a 15.00 ± 0.58a 100.0 ± 1.20a 0.0 ± 0.0c
YMM1 1.50 ± 0.06c 4.00 ± 0.12c 95.00 ± 0.58b 2 ± 0.41a
YMM2 2.00 ± 0.06b 7.00 ± 0.52b 99.33 ± 0.33a 0.97 ± 0.05b
YMM3 1.50 ± 0.05c 7.00 ± 0.46b 95.17 ± 0.44b 0.93 ± 0.09b
YMM4 2.03 ± 0.03b 3.00 ± 0.06c 70.00 ± 0.58c 0.97 ± 0.05b
Polypogon monspeliensis Control 0.20 ± 0.01a 2.60 ± 0.06a 100.0 ± 2.10a 0.0 ± 0.0d
YMM1 0.20 ± 0.01a 1.80 ± 0.12b 90.00 ± 1.15c 99.3 ± 0.94a
YMM2 0.10 ± 0.02b 1.50 ± 0.09c 90.00 ± 1.73c 99.3 ± 0.94a
YMM3 0.10 ± 0.01b 2.00 ± 0.12b 95.00 ± 0.58b 89.7 ± 0.47b
YMM4 0.10 ± 0.01b 1.80 ± 0.05b 95.00 ± 0.29b 18.7 ± 1.89c
Setaria viridis Control 2.00 ± 0.12a 7.00 ± 0.23a 99.33 ± 0.33a 0.0 ± 0.0c
YMM1 0.80 ± 0.06b 3.40 ± 0.06c 60.00 ± 1.73c 19.3 ± 0.94a
YMM2 0.60 ± 0.03bc 4.50 ± 0.06b 99.00 ± 0.58a 4.87 ± 0.19b
YMM3 0.50 ± 0.02c 3.40 ± 0.05c 95.00 ± 1.73b 4.8 ± 0.28b
YMM4 0.80 ± 0.05b 2.60 ± 0.12d 20.00 ± 0.58d 4.93 ± 0.09b
Sonchus oleraceus Control 2.00 ± 0.06a 3.00 ± 0.12a 99.67 ± 0.33a 0.0 ± 0.0d
YMM1 1.40 ± 0.06b 2.50 ± 0.05b 99.27 ± 0.63a 29.3 ± 0.94a
YMM2 1.00 ± 0.03c 2.00 ± 0.05c 90.00 ± 1.73b 9.4 ± 0.85b
YMM3 0.80 ± 0.01d 1.00 ± 0.02d 08.00 ± 0.29c 3.77 ± 0.33c
YMM4 0.50 ± 0.03e 0.90 ± 0.01d 10.33 ± 0.88c 4.73 ± 0.38c
Plantago major Control 1.10 ± 0.06a 1.50 ± 0.06a 99.00 ± 0.58a 0.0 ± 0.0c
YMM1 0.40 ± 0.03b 0.70 ± 0.06c 90.00 ± 1.73c 89.3 ± 0.94a
YMM2 0.50 ± 0.01b 1.30 ± 0.05b 95.00 ± 1.73b 89 ± 1.41a
YMM3 0.40 ± 0.01b 0.80 ± 0.05c 98.67 ± 0.88ab 29 ± 1.41b
YMM4 0.50 ± 0.05b 0.70 ± 0.03c 10.00 ± 0.58d 29.2 ± 1.18b
Echinochloa colona Control 0.50 ± 0.03b 4.00 ± 0.11b 99.33 ± 0.67a 0.0 ± 0.0d
YMM1 0.20 ± 0.01e 3.50 ± 0.10c 98.33 ± 1.20a 3.93 ± 0.09c
YMM2 1.50 ± 0.02a 5.00 ± 0.17a 89.00 ± 2.08b 8.83 ± 0.24a
YMM3 0.30 ± 0.02d 2.80 ± 0.03d 81.00 ± 3.79c 8.83 ± 0.24a
YMM4 0.40 ± 0.02c 1.70 ± 0.04e 81.33 ± 2.96c 7.77 ± 0.33b
Echinochloa crus-galli Control 0.50 ± 0.02c 3.51 ± 0.06b 97.67 ± 0.33a 0.0 ± 0.0e
YMM1 0.50 ± 0.01c 3.00 ± 0.17c 59.67 ± 1.45b 19 ± 1.41c
YMM2 0.60 ± 0.03b 2.50 ± 0.04d 50.00 ± 1.15c 39 ± 1.41b
YMM3 0.90 ± 0.04a 5.00 ± 0.12a 98.67 ± 0.88a 9.67 ± 0.47d
YMM4 0.00 ± 0.00d 0.00 ± 0.00e 0.00 ± 0.00d 79 ± 1.41a
  1. Values are means of three replicates and given as mean ± standard error. Different letters in the same column indicate significant differences according to Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) method (P ≤ 0.05). Rating of injury symptoms due to phytotoxicity: 0% = no injury, 10–25% = feeble, 25–50% = mild, 50–75% = moderate, and 75–100% = severe injury, plants killed