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Table 2 Mean pupation (%±SE) of second and fourth larval instars of Spodoptera litura from three different field populations treated with nucleopolyhedrosis virus and emamectin benzoate. (NPV-1 2 × 109 POBs ml−1, NPV-2 3 × 109 POBs ml−1, NPV-3 4 × 109 POBs ml−1, EM 0.1 ppm)

From: Evaluation of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV) and Emamectin Benzoate against Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Treatments Second instar Fourth instar
FSD LY ML FSD LY ML
NPV-1 71.85 ± 2.89b 79.25 ± 2.59b 85.18 ± 2.82b 78.51 ± 2.85b` 85.18 ± 2.67b 91.11 ± 3.22ab
NPV-2 63.70 ± 2.53bc 68.14 ± 2.27bc 76.29 ± 2.56bc 69.63 ± 1.95bc 74.07 ± 2.50bc 80.74 ± 2.41b
NPV-3 51.85 ± 2.34cd 59.25 ± 2.19cd 65.18 ± 1.88cd 58.51 ± 1.67c 65.18 ± 1.95cd 72.59 ± 2.16bc
EM 47.40 ± 2.14d 54.81 ± 1.35d 61.48 ± 1.73cd 53.33 ± 1.42c 60.74 ± 1.71d 66.66 ± 2.57c
NPV-1 + EM 28.88 ± 1.18e 37.77 ± 1.12be 43.70 ± 1.42d 34.81 ± 1.25d 41.48 ± 1.42be 48.14 ± 1.67d
NPV-2 + EM 9.62 ± 0.25f 16.29 ± 0.96f 20.74 ± 1.05e 17.77 ± 0.98e 25.18 ± 1.15f 32.59 ± 1.23e
NPV-3 + EM 0.00 ± 0.00g 2.96 ± 0.27g 7.40 ± 0.73f 3.70 ± 0.37f 8.88 ± 0.71g 13.33 ± 0.96f
Control 94.81 ± 2.97a 96.29 ± 3.17a 97.03 ± 3.04a 95.55 ± 3.26a 97.03 ± 2.98a 98.51 ± 2.97a
  1. Mean sharing the same letters within each column are not significantly different at 1.0% level