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Table 1 Key commercially available bionematicides and chemical nematicides, their applications rates, and prices in Egypt*

From: Optimizing biological control agents for controlling nematodes of tomato in Egypt

Active ingredient Product name Application rate (product/feddan−1)+ Price per feddan
Abamectin produced during the fermentation process of Streptomyces avermitilis (soluble concentrate at 20 g/l) Tervigo 2% SC 2.5 l/Feddan L.E. 2000 ($ 134)
109 CFU/ml of Serratia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Azotobacter sp., Bacillus circulans, and B. thuringiensis Micronema 30 l/feddan (thrice)/year L.E. 600 ($ 40)
108 units/ml Purpureocillium lilacinus Bio-Nematon 2 l/feddan/year L.E. 500 ($ 33)
109 bacterium cells of Serratia marcescens/ml water Nemaless 10 l/feddan (thrice)/year L.E. 600 ($ 40)
Cadusafos (O-ethyl S,S-bis (1-methylpropyl) phosphorodithioate) Rugby 10 G 24 Kg/feddan L.E. 6480 ($ 432)
Oxamyl (methyl 2-(dimethylamino)-N-(methylcarbamoyloxy)-2 oxoethanimidothioate) Vydate 24% SL 4 l/feddan (twice)/year L.E. 2800 ($ 187)
  1. *There are broad host range claims by the manufacturer’s product labels which have not necessarily been confirmed in independent trials
  2. +Figures given for comparative purposes when products are uniformly applied to the soil (except oxamyl for foliar application too). For some products and other, including low value, crops, product may be incorporated into field soil, potting mix, or applied in greenhouses for which different rates apply (Wilson and Jackson 2013; Hammam et al. 2016)