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Table 2 Date of first use by EPPO area, reported by EPPO for Morocco, and date of first report and/or use in Moroccan citrus groves, related to introduced benefit species in citrus groves in Morocco

From: Beneficial insect community of Moroccan citrus groves: assessment of their potential to enhance biocontrol services

SpeciesOriginNatureFamilyDate of first use by EPPO areaRelease reported by EPPO for MoroccoDate of first report/use in Moroccan citrus grovesFirst references
Aphytis lepidosaphes (Compere, 1955)ChinaParAphelinidae1956No?/NoEPPO
Aphytis lingnanensis (Compere, 1955)Est Asie-Chine (via Calfornie)ParAphelinidae1960Yes1965/No(Euverte 1967), (Benassy and Euverte 1967a, Bénassy and Euverte 1968a)
Aphytis melinus (DeBach, 1959)India-PakistanParAphelinidae1962 (probably 1961)Yes1961/Yes(Euverte 1967), (Bénassy and Euverte 1967a, Bénassy and Euverte 1968a)
Cales noacki (Howard, 1907)ChileParAphelinidae1970Yes1970/Yes(Abbassi 1974, 1975b)
Encarsia lahorensis (Howard, 1911)India/PakistanParAphelinidae1973No1973/Yes(Orlinski and Bassova 1996)
Eretmocerus debachi (Rose and Rosen, 1992)Japan- North AmericaParAphelinidae1982No1992/Yes(Abbassi and Lakhlifi 1994)
Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, 1880)CubaParBraconidae1990Yes2002/No(EPPO 2002)
Ageniaspis citricola (Logvinovskaya, 1983)Thailand (Florida)ParEncyrtidae1994Yes1995/Yes(FAO 1996)
(Abbassi et al. 1997), (Rizqi et al. 1997b)
Comperiella bifasciata (Howard, 1906)South China (via Califournie)ParEncyrtidae1924Yes?/No(Abbassi 1990), (Noyes and Hayat 1994)
Leptomastix dactylopii (Howard, 1885)Neotropique BrasilParEncyrtidae1992Yes1997?/No(Noyes and Hayat 1994), (Abdelkhalek et al. 1998)
Metaphycus flavus (Howard, 1881)-ParEncyrtidae1999No2004/ ?(OILB 1971),
Metaphycus helvolus (Compere, 1926)South AfricaParEncyrtidae1992 ?(Noyes and Hayat 1994)
Cirrospilus ingenuus (Gahan, 1932)South East Asia (via Australie)ParEulophidaeNoNo1996/Yes(FAO 1996), (Rizqi et al. 2003)
Citrostichus phyllocnistoides (Narayan, 1960)South China (via Espagne)ParEulophidaeNoNo1999/Yes(Smaili et al. 2001b); (Rizqi et al. 2003)
Quadrastichus citrella (Reina and LaSalle 2004)South Asia (viaEspagneParEulophidaeNoNo1997/Yes(Smaili et al. 2001b); (Rizqi et al. 2003), (Reina and LaSalle 2004)
Semielacher petiolatus (Girault, 1915)AustraliaParEulophidaeNoNo1996/Yes(FAO 1996), (Rizqi et al. 1997a)
Amitus spiniferus (Brethes, 1914)PeruParPlatygasteridae1971No1975/YesAbbassi, Com. per.
(Smaili et al. 2013);
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead)SpainParBraconidaeNoNo2016/No(Mazih et al. 2016)
Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954)S No Amérique /California -MéditerranéePredPhytoseiidae1985No2009(< 2007 in Morocco /Yes(Kreiter et al. 2007),
(Smaili et al. 2013)
Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot, 1962)-PredPhytoseiidae  2014 (< 2014 in Morocco) /Yes(Smaili 2017)
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant, 1853)AustraliePredCoccinellidae1908Yes1933/Yes(Smirnoff 1956)
Delphastus catalinae (Horn, 1895)Nearctic/Neotropique (America)PredCoccinellidae1993No2011/No(Smaili et al. 2013)
Exochomus nigropictus (Fairmaire, 1876)-PredCoccinellidaeNoNo2010/No(Smaili et al. 2010a, Smaili et al. 2013)
Hyperaspis algirica (Crotch, 1874)-PredCoccinellidaeNoNo2002/No(Smaili et al. 2010a, Smaili et al. 2013)
Hyperaspis pumila (Mulsant, 1987)-PredCoccinellidaeNoNo2002/No(Smaili et al. 2006, Smaili et al. 2010a, Smaili et al. 2013)
Nephus peyerimhoffi (Sicard, 1923)-PredCoccinellidaeNoNo2011/No(Smaili et al. 2013)
Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant, 1850)AustraliaPredCoccinellidae1897yes1921/Yes(Smirnoff 1956)
(Smaili et al., 2010a, 2013)
Rhyzobius lophanthae (Blaisdell, 1892)AustraliaPredCoccinellidae1980yes1944/Yes(Smirnoff 1956)
Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer, 1776)EuropePredSyrphidae1995yes-/No(Dirickx 1994),
(Smaili et al. 2009)
  1. Para parasitoid; Pred. predator