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Table 1 Date of first use by EPPO area, reported by EPPO for Morocco and date of first report and/or use in Moroccan citrus groves, related to native benefit species in citrus groves in Morocco

From: Beneficial insect community of Moroccan citrus groves: assessment of their potential to enhance biocontrol services

SpeciesNatureFamilyDate of first use by EPPO areaReported by EPPO for MoroccoDate of first report /use in Moroccan citrus grovesFirst references
Ablerus (Azotus) chrysomphali (Ghesquière 1960)ParAphelinidaeNoNo1950/No(Smirnoff 1956), (Ghesquière 1960), (Bénassy and Euverte 1968a, 1968b)
Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet, 1912)ParAphelinidaeNoNo1956/No(Thompson 1953), (Smirnoff 1956)
Aphytis hispanicus (Mercet, 1912)ParAphelinidaeNoNo? /No(Abbassi 1975c); (Rosen and DeBach 1979)
Coccophagus semicircularis (Forster, 1841)ParAphelinidaeNoNo1929/No(Smirnoff 1956)
Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker, 1839)ParAphelinidaeNoNo1949/No(Smirnoff 1956)
Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman, 1825)ParAphelinidaeNoNo1929/No(Smirnoff 1956)
Encarsia citrina (Crawford, 1891)ParAphelinidae1984Yes? /No(Thompson 1953)
Encarsia sp.ParAphelinidae  /No(Smaili et al. 2013)
Encarsia sophia (Girault and Dodd, 1915)ParAphelinidaeNoNo1992/No(Abbassi and Lakhlifi 1994)
Encarsia lounsburyi (Berlese and Paoli, 1918)ParAphelinidaeNoNo1948/No(Smirnoff 1956)
Marietta leopardina (Motschulsky, 1863)ParAphelinidae No/No(Ghesquiere 1960), (Benassy and Euverte 1967) , (Hayat 1986)
Aphidius ervi (Haliday, 1834)ParBraconidae1995Yes? /No(Stary and Sekkat 1987)
Aphidius sp.probably Aphidius colemani (Viereck)ParBraconidaeNoNo? /No(Smaili et al. 2009, 2013)
Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall, 1896)ParBraconidaeNoNo? /No(Stary and Sekkat 1987)
Microgaster sp1. (Latreille, 1804)ParBraconidae  /No(Delucchi and Merle 1962)
Microgaster sp.2 (Latreille, 1804)ParBraconidae  /No(Delucchi and Merle 1962)
Psyttalia concolor (Szepligeti, 1910)ParBraconidae1914No? /No(Malausa et al. 2008)
Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault, 1915)ParEncyrtidae1995Yes? /No(Smaili et al. 2013),
Rizqi and Bihi Com. pers.
Coccidoxenoides perminutus (Girault, 1915)ParEncyrtidaeNoNo? /No(Smaili et al. 2013)
Rizqi and Bihi Com. Pers.
Habrolepis diaspidi (Risbec, 1951)ParEncyrtidaeNoNo1965/No(Compere and Annecke 1961), (Delucchi and Traboulsi 1965), (Benassy and Euverte 1967)
Habrolepis dalmanni (Westwood, 1837)ParEncyrtidaeNoNo1950/No(Thompson 1953), (Smirnoff 1956)
Leptomastidea abnormis (Girault, 1915)ParEncyrtidae1984Yes? /No(OILB 1971), (Noyes and Hayat 1994), Abdelkhalek et al. (1998)
Elachertus affinis (Masi, 1911) (syn. Artaeus Walker)ParEulophidae? /No(Delucchi and Merle 1962)
Cirrospilus pictus (Nees, 1834)ParEulophidaeNoNo/NoFAO (1996),
(Smaili et al. 1999b)
Cirrospilus vittatus (Walker, 1838)ParEulophidaeNoNo/No(FAO 1996)
Pnigalio sp.ParEulophidaeNoNo/No(FAO 1996)
Euseius scutalis (Athias-Henriot, 1958)PredPhytoseiidaeNoNo? /No(Meyerdirk and Coudriet 1986),
(McMurtry and Bounfour 1989)
Euseius stipulatus (Athias-Henriot, 1960)PredPhytoseiidaeNoNo? /No(Bounfour and McMurtry 1987)
Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese, 1889)PredPhytoseiidae1993No1981/No(McMurtry and Bounfour 1989)
Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot, 1957)PredPhytoseiidae1968no? /No(McMurtry and Bounfour 1989)
Typhlodromus phialatus (Athias-Henriot, 1960)PredPhytoseiidaeNoNo1989 /No(McMurtry and Bounfour 1989)
Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, 1957)PredPhytoseiidaeNoNo2003 /No(Tixier 2013)
Typhlodromus foenilis (Oudemans, 1930)PredPhytoseiidaeNoNo2013 /No(Tixier 2013, Tixier et al. 2016)
Harpalus sp.PredCarabidaeNoNo2009/No(Smaili 2009), (Smaili et al. 2013)
Pseudoophonus rufipes (De Geer, 1774)PredCarabidaeNoNo2009/No(Smaili 2009),
(Smaili et al. 2013)
Cicindella sp.PredCicindellidaeNoNo2009/No(Smaili et al. 2009)
Adalia decempunctata (L., 1758)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1931/No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Smaili et al. 2010-Smaili et al. 2013)
Adalia bipunctata (L., 1758)PredCoccinellidaeYesYes? /No(Smaili et al. 2006, Smaili et al. 2010a, Smaili et al. 2013)
Chilocorus bipustulatus (L., 1758)PredCoccinellidae1959Oui1954/Yes*Smirnoff (1954, 1956)
Clitosthetus arcuatus (Rossi, 1794)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1931/No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Abbassi 1990)
Coccinella septempunctata (L., 1758)PredCoccinellidae1980Yes1929/No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Smaili et al. 2010, 2013)
Exochomus nigromaculatus (Goeze, 1777)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1933/No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Smaili et al. 2010, 2013)
Exochomus quadripustulatus (L., 1758)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1949/No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Smaili et al. 2013)
Harmonia quadripunctata (Pontoppidan, 1763)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1956/No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Smaili et al. 2013)
Hippodamia variegata (Goeze, 1777)PredCoccinellidaenono1931/No(Smirnoff 1956)
(Smaili et al. 2013)
Hyperaspis reppensis (Herbst, 1783)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1953/No(Smirnoff 1956), (Abbassi 1990)
Nephus ulbrichi (Fursch, 1977)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1949/No(Smaili et al. 2013)
Oenopia conglobata (L., 1758)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo2010 (1956 in Morocco) /No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Smaili et al. 2013)
Oenopia doublieri (Mulsant, 1846)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1953/No(Smirnoff 1956)
Platynaspis luteorubra (Goeze, 1777)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1933/No(Smirnoff 1956)
(Smaili et al. 2013)
Pharoscymnus setulosus (Chevrolat, 1861)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo2011 (1952 in Morocco) /No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Smaili et al. 2013)
Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L., 1758)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo2007/No(Smaili et al. 2006, 2010, 2013)
Rhyzobius chrysomeloides (Herbst, 1792)PredCoccinellidaeNoNoBefore 1990/No(Abbassi 1990)
Rhyzobius litura (Fabricius, 1787)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1956/No(Smirnoff 1956)
Scymnus apetzi (Mulsant, 1846)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1930/No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Smaili et al. 2010, 2013)
Scymniscus biguttatus (Mulsant, 1850)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1956/No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Smaili et al. 2013)
Scymnus levaillanti (Mulsant, 1850)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1951/No(Smirnoff 1956)
Scymnus interruptus (Goeze, 1777)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1931/No(Smirnoff 1956)
Scymnus marinus (Mulsant, 1850)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1951/No(Smirnoff 1956)
Stethorus punctillum (Weise, 1891)PredCoccinellidae1995Yes? /No(Smaili et al. 1999a, 2010)
Scymnus sp.1PredCoccinellidaeNoNo2007/No(Smaili et al. 2010, 2013)
Scymnus sp.2; probablyScymnus rufipes (Fabricius, 1798)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo2008/No(Smaili et al. 2010, 2013)
Scymnus subvillosus (Goeze, 1777)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1931/No(Smirnoff 1956),
(Smaili et al. 2009, 2010)
Scymnus suturalis (Thunberg, 1795)PredCoccinellidaeNoNo1927/No(Smirnoff 1956)
Cybocephalus sp.PredNitidulidaeNoNo1956 /No(Smirnoff 1956)
Cybocephalus rabaticus (Smirnoff 1956)PredNitidulidaeNoNo1952/No(Smirnoff 1991), (Arahou 2008)
Aphidoletes Aphidimyza (Rondani, 1847)PredCecidomyiidae1985Yes? /No?
Leucopis griseola (Fallén, 1823)PredChamaemyiidaeNoNo1956 /No(Smirnoff 1956)
Simosyrphus sp.PredSyrphidaeNoNo1956 /No(Smirnoff 1956)
Anthocoris sp.PredAnthocoridaeNoNo1956 /No(Smaili 2009)
Orius sp.PredAnthocoridaeNoNo? /No(Smaili 2009)
Cardiastethus nazarenus (Reuter, 1884)PredAnthocoridaeNoNo1956 /No(Smirnoff 1956)
Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens, 1836)PredChrysopidae1987Yes? /No?
Conwentzia psociformis (Curtis, 1834)PredConiopterigidaeNoNo? /No(Smaili 2009, 2013)
Aeolothrips sp.PredAeolothripidaeNoNo? /No?
Franklinothrips sp.PredAeolothripidaeNoNo? /NoPersonal observation
  1. Para parasitoid; Pred. predator
  2. *Biological control only with C.bipustulatus var .iranensis