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Table 3 Mean percentage of infested tomato fruits by Helicoverpa armigera larvae during greenhouse experiments. Values represent mean per cent attacked tomato fruits ± standard error (n = 5)

From: Evaluation of a Bacillus thuringiensis isolate-based formulation against the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Control periodsRain simulationControlWaterSpinosadHr1Formulation
2Unwashed0 ± 0a1 ± 0.32b0 ± 0a0 ± 0a0 ± 0a
Washed0 ± 0a'1 ± 0.32b'0 ± 0a'0 ± 0a'0 ± 0a'
3Unwashed0 ± 0a2.5 ± 0.5b0 ± 0a0 ± 0a0 ± 0a
Washed0 ± 0a'2.5 ± 0.5b'0 ± 0a'0 ± 0a'0 ± 0a'
4Unwashed0 ± 0a3 ± 0.71b0 ± 0a2 ± 0.71b2 ± 0.45b
Washed0 ± 0a'3 ± 0.71b'0 ± 0a'3 ± 0.32b'2.5 ± 0.22b'
5Unwashed0 ± 0a4 ± 0.63c0 ± 0a3 ± 0.58b2.5 ± 0.22b
Washed0 ± 0a'3.5 ± 0.5b'c'2.5 ± 0.37b'4 ± 0.32c'3 ± 0.32b'c'
6Unwashed0 ± 0a10.5 ± 0.43c0 ± 0a3.5 ± 0.37b3 ± 0.32b
Washed0 ± 0a'4.5 ± 0.31c'3 ± 0.49b'4 ± 0.32c'3 ± 0.32b'
7Unwashed0 ± 0a20 ± 0.71d0 ± 0a5 ± 0.45c3.5 ± 0.22b
Washed0 ± 0a'20 ± 0.71d'3 ± 0.49b'5 ± 0.32c'3.5 ± 0.22b'
8Unwashed0 ± 0a31.5 ± 0.54d0 ± 0a5 ± 0.45c3.5 ± 0.22b
Washed0 ± 0a'32 ± 0.71d'3 ± 0.49b'12 ± 0.89c'3.5 ± 0.22b'
9Unwashed0 ± 0a35 ± 0.71d0 ± 0a5 ± 0.45c3.5 ± 0.22b
Washed0 ± 0a'40 ± 0.71d'3 ± 0.49b'19.5 ± 0.66c'4 ± 0.32b'
10Unwashed0 ± 0a39 ± 0.45d0 ± 0a5 ± 0.45c3.5 ± 0.22b
Washed0 ± 0a'41 ± 0.58d'3 ± 0.49b'19.5 ± 0.66c'4 ± 0.32b'
  1. For each control period and rain simulation, similar alphabetic letters are not significantly different (ANOVA; P ≤ 0.05)