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Table 3 Effect of orange oil concentrations on certain reproductive biology of Spodoptera littoralis treated as second instar larvae

From: Increasing the efficacy of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrosis virus using certain essential oils

Concentration (%) (Avg.) Larval duration (%) Pupation (%) Malform-ation (Avg.) Pupal duration (%) Adult emergence (Avg.) adult longevity
0.0 20.4 d 85.0 a 1.0 c 14.6 a 85.8 a 10.2 ab
1.0 27.4 b 84.1 a 1.2 c 15.2 a 86.2 a 9.8 b
2.0 29.3 bc 84.0 a 1.4 c 14.8 a 85.6 a 9.8 b
3.0 26.9 bc 80.2 b 1.8 c 15.0 a 81.0 b 10.3 ab
4.0 28.0 c 76.6 c 6.8 b 14.4 a 80.8 b 11.2 a
5.0 34.0 a 70.2 d 9.4 a 16.2 a 75.4 c 11.4 a
LSD 1.99 2.52 1.48 1.48 2.24 0.968
P 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.0345 0.000 0.0001