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Table 3 The mean (± SE) pre-adult longevity, adult longevity, pre-oviposition periods (days) and total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) of H. hebetor on H. armigera reared on six tomato cultivars with four nitrogen levels

From: Tri-trophic interactions among nitrogen-fertilized tomato cultivars, the tomato fruit worm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the ectoparasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

StageN LevelKingstonRiograndEarlyurbanaRedstonSuperstrain-BPrimoearly
Eggn01.44 ± 0.04Aa1.40 ± 0.03Aa1.42 ± 0.04Aa1.42 ± 0.03Aa1.46 ± 0.04Aa1.44 ± 0.04Aa
n−1.44 ± 0.04Aa1.46 ± 0.03Aa1.46 ± 0.04Aa1.40 ± 0.03Aa1.48 ± 0.04Aa1.44 ± 0.04Aa
ns1.42 ± 0.05Aa1.44 ± 0.03Aa1.44 ± 0.04Aa1.40 ± 0.03Aa1.46 ± 0.04Aa1.42 ± 0.03Aa
n+1.40 ± 0.05Aa1.44 ± 0.02Aa1.40 ± 0.04Aa1.40 ± 0.03Aa1.48 ± 0.04Aa1.41 ± 0.03Aa
Larvaen03.12 ± 0.041 Ca3.16 ± 0.05Ca3.77 ± 0.04Aa3.33 ± 0.063Ba3.11 ± 0.04BCa3.57 ± 0.043 Aa
n−2.74 ± 0.053 Db3.08 ± 0.06Ca3.66 ± 0.07Aa3.22 ± 0.052BCa2.99 ± 0.03CDab3.46 ± 0.073ABa
ns2.41 ± 0.007Dbc3.09 ± 0.04Ba3.25 ± 0.07Ab3.14 ± 0.054Bab2.71 ± 0.054Cb3.35 ± 0.071Aab
n+2.17 ± 0.054Dcd3.01 ± 0.04Ba3.19 ± 0.07Ab3.03 ± 0.051Bb2.63 ± 0.053Cb3.27 ± 0.076Aab
Pupan07.17 ± 0.06ABa7.21 ± 0.08Aa7.34 ± 0.060Aa7.27 ± 0.07Aa7.220 ± 0.070Aa7.31 ± 0.07Aa
n−6.92 ± 0.06ABa7.12 ± 0.08Aa7.29 ± 0.050Aa7.21 ± 0.06Aa7.080 ± 0.060Aa7.26 ± 0.06Aa
ns6.91 ± 0.080Ba7.06 ± 0.06Aa7.14 ± 0.060Aa7.12 ± 0.04Aa6.89 ± 0.0611Ba7.22 ± 0.06Aa
n+6.73 ± 0.050Bb7.05 ± 0.06Aa7.16 ± 0.060Aa7.06 ± 0.03Aa6.92 ± 0.054ABb7.13 ± 0.06Aa
Total Pre-adultn011.75 ± 0.09 Da12.06 ± 0.11 Ca12.83 ± 0.11Aa12.10 ± 0.12Ca11.68 ± 0.14 Da12.39 ± 0.11Ba
n−10.91 ± 0.12Eb11.44 ± 0.13Db12.49 ± 0.11Ab11.83 ± 0.09 Cb11.33 ± 0.09Db12.16 ± 0.14Bb
ns10.76 ± 0.16Eb11.28 ± 0.09Dbc12.47 ± 0.11Ab11.72 ± 0.08 Cb11.22 ± 0.11Db12.11 ± 0.12Bb
n+10.14 ± 0.09Ec11.21 ± 0.08Cc12.28 ± 0.09Ac11.44 ± 0.08Bc10.88 ± 0.09Dc12.26 ± 0.12Aa
Fecundity (offspring)n058.0 ± 6.21Ac52.0 ± 6.87Ab47.0 ± 5.70Bb48.2 ± 6.13Bb56.6 ± 5.94Ac56.02 ± 7.33Ab
n−69.0 ± 7.32Ab63.0 ± 6.44Aa58.2 ± 8.21Ba59.7 ± 9.11Ba67.7 ± 7.86Ab65.70 ± 6.34Aa
ns78.1 ± 6.41Aa64.0 ± 9.38Ba59.6 ± 6.11Ca66.3 ± 7.32Ba81.7 ± 5.65Aa66.9 ± 8.330Ba
n+76.4 ± 9.31Aa66.4 ± 7.82Ba62.5 ± 7.33Ba66.0 ± 5.51Ba82.1 ± 6.91Aa66.32 ± 6.42Ba
Longevity (♀)n016.40 ± 0.22Ab16.22 ± 0.24Aa16.04 ± 0.31Aa16.11 ± 0.63Aa16.32 ± 0.38Ab16.03 ± 0.32Aab
n−17.7 ± 0.2ABab16.50 ± 0.47Ba16.19 ± 0.22Ba16.61 ± 0.57Ba18.57 ± 0.33Aa17.29 ± 0.53ABa
ns18.73 ± 0.53Aa16.60 ± 0.43Ba16.33 ± 0.55Ba16.54 ± 0.28Ba18.86 ± 0.25Aa17.28 ± 0.46ABa
n+18.67 ± 0.41Aa16.92 ± 0.2ABa16.25 ± 0.47Ba16.73 ± 0.42Ba18.79 ± 0.29Aa17.25 ± 0.27ABa
Longevity (♂)n05.40 ± 0.35Aa5.10 ± 0.36Aa5.23 ± 0.24Aa5.17 ± 0.63Aa5.20 ± 0.51Aa5.16 ± 0.26Aa
n−6.23 ± 0.28Aa6.02 ± 0.47Aa5.60 ± 0.45Aa6.18 ± 0.61Aa6.32 ± 0.33Aa6.07 ± 0.45Aa
ns6.41 ± 0.32Aa6.21 ± 0.52Aa6.12 ± 0.35Aa6.14 ± 0.52Aa6.53 ± 0.57Aa6.13 ± 0.52Aa
n+6.30 ± 0.57Aa6.10 ± 0.22Aa6.15 ± 0.51Aa6.22 ± 0.47Aa6.40 ± 0.63Aa6.21 ± 0.32Aa
TPOP (day)n012.34 ± 0.14Ca13.41 ± 0.18Ca13.96 ± 0.22Aa13.83 ± 0.25Aa13.21 ± 0.25Ca13.69 ± 0.18Ba
n−12.18 ± 0.1Cab13.12 ± 0.14Cb13.88 ± 0.18Aa13.20 ± 0.09Cb12.75 ± 0.11Db13.48 ± 0.22Bb
ns12.04 ± 0.32Db12.85 ± 0.12Cc13.81 ± 0.22Aa13.42 ± 0.11Bb12.70 ± 0.10Cb13.34 ± 0.19Bb
n+11.76 ± 0.16Ec12.55 ± 0.1CDd13.74 ± 0.23Aa12.73 ± 0.15Cc12.35 ± 0.08Dc13.46 ± 0.25Bb
  1. The means followed by different capital letters in the rows and small letters in the columns for every stage refer to the significant differences (P ≤ 5%)
  2. n0 no fertilization, n− standard fertilization minus 30%, ns standard fertilization, n+ standard fertilization plus 30%