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Table 1 Population densities of Aphis gossypii (N) on hydroponic cucumber and effectiveness of biopesticides

From: Efficiency of botanical pesticides against some pests infesting hydroponic cucumber, cultivated under greenhouse conditions

Treatments Before spray After 24 h After 72 h After 168 h After 336 h
N CPD (%) EF (%) N CPD (%) EF (%) N CPD (%) EF (%) N CPD (%) EF (%)
Matrine 23.6a 19.3ab − 18.3 39 4.0a − 83.0 87 3.6a − 84.5 69 1.3a − 94.3 97
Spintoram 35.6a 14.3a − 59.8 46 19.0ab − 46.7 49 5.0a − 85.9 81 2.0a − 94.3 99
Azadirachtin 81.3a 41.0ab − 49.5 46 17.0ab − 79.0 81 14.0a − 82.7 82 10.6a − 86.8 86
Custard apple 74.3a 45.6b − 38.5 31 3.6a − 95.0 95 2.0a − 97.3 98 6.3a − 91.4 93
Control 27.6a 31.6ab 15.8   39.3b 43.9   32.0b 17.0   33.3b 21.9  
Significance level F = 2.10; df = 4; P ≥ 0.05 F = 4.43; df = 4; P ≤ 0.05    F = 4.38; df = 4; P ≤ 0.05    F = 13.8; df = 4; P ≤ 0.01    F = 30.8; df = 4; P ≤ 0.01   
  1. The mean number of aphids/leaf (30 leaves per plot); within a column, the means pursued by the same letter are not significantly different (Tukey’s HSD test, α = 0.05)
  2. CPD (%) change in population density, EF (%) percent efficacy (Henderson-Tilton formula)