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Table 1 Fungal and bacterial biocontrol agents used with other components in integrated nematode management

From: Fungal and bacterial nematicides in integrated nematode management strategies

Fungus/bacterium Integrated with Nematode managed Crop Result Reference
Pasteuria penetrans Carbofuran Meloidogyne javanica Tomato Combined application of P. penetrans and carbofuran reduced root galling by 50%. Brown and Nordmeyer 1985
P. penetrans Neem cake Meloidogyne incognita Tomato P. penetrans in combination with neem cake was found most effective in parasitizing the nematode juveniles and adults as compared to individual treatment. Rangaswamy et al. 2000
P. penetrans Neem cake M. incognita Psoralea corylifolia Nematode infection was least when P. penetrans and neem extract were applied in combination. Minimum number of juveniles per root system was observed. Mehtab et al. 2013
P. penetrans Neem cake M. javanica Tomato Combined application of P. penetrans and neem (Azadirachta indica) cake reduced nematode population by 75%. Umamaheswari et al. 1988
P. penetrans Castor cake M. incognita Chilli Combination of castor and P. penetrans showed greater reduction in galling index (84.75%) and soil population (85.74%) of M. incognita as compared to control (M. incognita alone). Chaudhary and Kaul 2013
P. penetrans Nematicides M. javanica Tomato Combined effect of P. penetrans with nematicides (carbofuran, aldicarb, miral, scbufos, and phorate) reduced the root galling. Umamaheswari et al. 1987
P. penetrans Carbofuran M. incognita Tomato Combined application of P. penetrans and carbofuran reduced gall formation on tomato roots by 63.02%. Somasekhar and Gill 1991
P. penetrans Carbofuran Heterodera cajani Pigeonpea The penetration to host root was minimum when P. penetrans was applied with carbofuran. Number of healthy cysts, eggs/cyst, and total nematode population were significantly reduced in this treatment. Gogoi and Gill 2001
P. penetrans Neem cake M. incognita Tomato Increase in plant growth parameters and parasitism of M. incognita female was found when P. penetrans was applied in combination with neem cake. Parvatha Reddy 1997
P. penetrans Neem cake M. javanica Tomato Combined application of P. penetrans and neem cake reduced root galling by 32% as compared to nematode alone treatment. The spore-encumbered juveniles were more susceptible to the effects of the neem. Javed et al. 2008
Pseudomonas fluorescens Organic manure M. incognita Tomato P. fluorescens GRP3 with organic manure was the best combination for the management of M. incognita on tomato. Siddiqui et al. 2001b
P. fluorescens Carbofuran Meloidogyne graminicola Rice Combined application of P. fluorescens and carbofuran 3G increased plant height, root length, and grain yield and decreased nematode population by 79.34%. Narasimhamurthy et al. 2017a
P. fluorescens Neem cake (soil application) M. incognita Coleus forskohlii Coleus cutting dipped in 0.1% P. fluorescens at planting + soil application of neem cake @ 400 Kg/ha + growing marigold (Tagetes erecta) as intercrop, uprooted and incorporated with soil at the time of earthing up (60–70 days after planting) reduced the root-knot nematode population by 72%. Seenivasan 2007
P. fluorescens Neem seed powder + carbofuran M. incognita Okra Nematode penetration and galling was reduced by 54 and 70%, respectively, on integrated application of P. fluorescens, carbofuran, and neem seed powder as compared to control (nematode alone). Sharma et al. 2008
Trichoderma harzianum Neem cake M. incognita Tomato A significant increase in plant growth and decrease in root galling and final population of M. incognita were observed in tomato seedlings transplanted in neem cake-amended soil incorporated with T. harzianum. Rao et al. 1997a
T. harzianum Neem cake Tylenchulus semipenetrans Acid lime T. harzianum in combination with neem (Azadirachta indica), karanj (Pongamia pinnata), and castor (Ricinus communis) oil cakes was effective in increasing the growth of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia) seedlings and reducing the population of T. semipenetrans both in soil and roots in pots. Parvatha Reddy et al. 1996
Karanj cake
Castor cake
T. harzianum Carbofuran M. incognita French bean T. harzianum in combination with carbofuran resulted in decreased root galling, egg masses, and nematode population in soil by 65.15% as compared to untreated control. Gogoi and Mahanta 2013
T. harzianum Carbofuran M. incognita Brinjal Combined application of T. harzianum and carbofuran resulted in decreased root galling, egg masses, and nematode population in soil. Devi et al. 2016
T. harzianum Carbofuran M. incognita Mentha arvensis T. harzianum + carbofuran resulted in lowest root galling. Haseeb et al. 2007
T. harzianum Carbofuran M. incognita Pea T. harzianum + carbofuran proved more effective than T. harzianum + neem cake in reducing the root galls, egg masses, and nematode population in soil. Brahma and Borah 2016
Neem cake
T. harzianum Neem cake M. incognita Chick pea Combined application of T. harzianum and neem cake reduced galling on chickpea roots. Pant and Pandey 2002
T. harzianum Lantana camara M. incognita Tomato T. harzianum + Lantana camara resulted in a significant difference in the reduction of root-knot nematode population, nematode reduction rate, number of galls, and egg masses per plant. Feyisa et al. 2015
T. harzianum Neem cake + P. fluorescens M. incognita Brinjal T. harzianum in combination with neem cake + P. fluorescens significantly reduced the incidence of root-knot disease of eggplant. Root galls were reduced by 81%, and yield of eggplant was enhanced by up to 70% as compared to check (nematode alone). Singh 2013
T. viride Carbofuran M. graminicola Rice Combined application of T. viride and carbofuran increased plant height, root length, and grain yield and decreased nematode population by 69.17%. Narasimhamurthy et al. 2017a
T. viride P. lilacinus + carbofuran + mustard cake M. incognita Tomato Integrated application of T. viride along with P. lilacinus, carbofuran, and mustard cake showed least nematode reproduction factor (0.0) as compared to untreated infested soil (1.783). Goswami et al. 2006
T. viride Compost Meloidogyne spp. Gotukola (Centella asiatica) Treatments of T. viride + compost had significant reduction in root gall formation in Gotukola besides significant impact on plant growth that attributed to increased number of roots, leaf length, stalk length, and root length and highest fresh weight of leaves of first harvest. Shamalie et al. 2011
T. viride Neem cake M. incognita Tomato T. viride in combination with either neem or castor cake was found most effective in parasitizing the egg masses of the nematode as compared to individual treatment. Rangaswamy et al. 2000
Castor cake
T. viride Neem cake M. incognita Tobacco Integrated application of T. viride along with neem cake significantly reduced the number of galls and egg masses on tobacco root. Raveendra et al. 2011
T. viride P. chlamydosporia + urea M. incognita Red kidney bean T. viride + P. chlamydosporia + urea reduced galls and egg masses per root system. Sharf et al. 2014a, b
Paecilomyces lilacinus Neem cake + NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) M. incognita Tomato The antagonistic potential of P. lilacinus against M. incognita infesting tomato seedlings under nursery conditions was enhanced (53.6%) when applied in combination with neem cake and NPK. Nagesh et al. 2001
P. lilacinus Neem cake Heterodera zeae Sweet corn Combined application of P. lilacinus with neem cake and karanj leaves resulted in decline of cyst population in soil by 63.04% and 52.17%, respectively. Baheti et al. 2017
Karanj leaves
P. lilacinus Neem seed powder + dimethoate M. incognita Pigeonpea Seed treatment with P. lilacinus + neem seed powder + dimethoate improved the pigeonpea yield up to 30% and suppressed the galling and nematode population up to 77%. Askary 2008
P. lilacinus Neem leaf suspension M. incognita Brinjal P. lilacinus + neem leaf suspension @ 5% and 10% resulted in nematode egg parasitization by 59 and 64%, respectively, and decrease in final nematode population by 64.10 and 71.47%, respectively. Rao et al. 1997b
P. lilacinus Aldicarb M. javanica Tomato The smallest galling index, number of galls, and nematode population were in soils treated with P. lilacinus in combination with aldicarb followed by P. lilacinus + chicken manure, P. lilacinus + R. communis, P. lilacinus + T. minuta, and P. lilacinus + D. stramonium. Oduor-Owino 2003
Tagetes minuta
Datura stramonium
Ricinus communis
Chicken manure
P. lilacinus Groundnut cake M. javanica Brinjal The highest improvement in plant growth and best protection against M. javanica was obtained by the integration of P. lilacinus with groundnut cake followed by neem cake, linseed cake, castor cake, and mahua cake. Ashraf and Khan 2010
Neem cake
Linseed cake
Castor cake
Mahua cake
P. lilacinus Neem cake Soil nematodes Pigeonpea Damage caused by the nematodes was significantly reduced when P. lilacinus was added along with oil-cakes. Most effective combination of P. lilacinus was with neem cake. Anver 2003
Mustard cake
Castor cake
P. lilacinus Neem cake M. incognita Tomato Increase in plant growth parameters and nematode egg parasitism was found when P. lilacinus was applied in combination with neem cake. Parvatha Reddy et al. 1997
Pochonia chlamydosporia P. fluorescens + T. viride + carbofuran Globodera spp. Potato Combined application of P. chlamydosporia along with P. fluorescens, T. viride, and carbofuran resulted in significantly higher plant growth and lower cyst nematode (Globodera spp.) population in soil and root. There was 70.57% increase in tuber weight and 71.93% decrease in the cyst population. A significant reduction in the population of eggs and juveniles was also noted. Muthulakshmi et al. 2012
P. chlamydosporia Carbofuran M. incognita Tomato P. chlamydosporia + carbofuran resulted in maximum plant growth and minimum galls and egg masses. Gopinatha et al. 2002
P. chlamydosporia Neem cake + dazomat M. incognita Rose Soil application of P. chlamydosporia + neem cake + dazomat resulted in maximum percent healthy root and flower yield and reduced the root galls. Nagesh and Jankiram 2004
P. chlamydosporia Carbofuran + neem cake M. incognita Okra Integrated application of P. chlamydosporia along with carbofuran and neem cake suppressed root-knot disease severity in terms of galling, egg production, and nematode population by 89%, 90%, and 81%, respectively. Dhawan and Singh 2009
P. chlamydosporia Neem cake M. incognita Brinjal A significant reduction in nematode multiplication was observed when soil was treated with P. chlamydosporia + neem cake and P. chlamydosporia + mustard cake. Parihar et al. 2015
Mustard cake
P. chlamydosporia Neem cake H. zeae Sweet corn Combined application of P. chlamydosporia with neem cake resulted in decline of cyst population in soil by 54.35%. Baheti et al. 2017