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Table 4 Interaction between Tracer and entomopathogenic nematode species over mortality rate (mean ± SE) of the second and third larval instars of Spodoptera litura after 96 h of treatment application

From: Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) and the biocide, spinosad for mitigation of the armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Treatments* Observed mortality (%) and interactive response between treatments
Second instar χ 2 Responsec Third instar χ 2 Response***
Tracer 800 ppm 100.00 ± 0.00a** 76.67 ± 3.33ab**
Tracer 400 ppm 63.33 ± 3.33 cd 50.00 ± 5.77 cd
Tracer 200 ppm 50.00 ± 5.77de 33.33 ± 3.33de
Sc 1000 IJS 63.33 ± 3.33 cd 46.67 ± 3.34 cd
Sc 500 IJS 33.33 ± 3.33ef 33.33 ± 3.33de
Sc 200 IJS 20.00 ± 5.77 fg 10.00 ± 5.77ef
Sc 100 IJS 3.33 ± 3.33gh 0.00 ± 0.00f
Hi 1000 IJS 60.00 ± 5.77 cd 33.33 ± 6.67de
Hi 500 IJS 33.33 ± 3.33ef 20.00 ± 5.77ef
Hi 200 IJS 13.33 ± 3.33gh 6.67 ± 3.33f
Hi 100 IJS 0.00 ± 0.00 h 0.00 ± 0.00f
Sc + TR 800 ppm 100.00 ± 0.00a 11.28 Synergistic 96.67 ± 3.33a 30.67 Synergistic
Sc + TR 400 ppm 86.67 ± 3.33ab 17.82 Synergistic 70.00 ± 5.77bc 28.73 Synergistic
Sc + TR 200 ppm 73.33 ± 3.33bc 17.56 Synergistic 50.00 ± 5.77 cd 12.10 Synergistic
Hi + TR 800 ppm 100.00 ± 0.00a 12.73 Synergistic 86.67 ± 6.68ab 20.50 Synergistic
Hi + TR 400 ppm 70.00 ± 5.77bc 10.8 Synergistic 76.67 ± 3.33ab 21.63 Synergistic
Hi + TR 200 ppm 56.67 ± 3.33 cd 8.89 Synergistic 46.67 ± 6.67 cd 0.20 Additive
Control 0.00 ± 0.00 h   0.00 ± 0.00f  
  1. *Treatments: TR = Tracer® 240SC, Sc = S. carpocapsae and Hi = H. indica; Sc + TR (S. carpocapsae 1000 IJs + respective concentration of insecticide), Hi + TR (H. indica 1000 IJs + respective concentration of insecticide), **sharing different letters are statistically different by the Tukey test at 5% probability, ***interactive response between treatment mixtures: synergistic (χ2 > 3.84 and observed mortality > expected mortality), additive (χ2 < 3.84), and antagonistic (χ2 > 3.84 and observed mortality < expected mortality)