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Table 3 Interaction between Tracer and entomopathogenic nematode species over mortality rate (mean ± SE) of the second and third larval instars of Spodoptera litura after 48 h of treatment application

From: Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida) and the biocide, spinosad for mitigation of the armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Treatments* Observed mortality (%) and interactive response between treatments
Second instar χ 2 Responsec Third instar χ 2 Response***
Tracer 800 ppm 66.67 ± 6.67ab** 43.33 ± 3.34ab**
Tracer 400 ppm 40.00 ± 5.77 cd 23.33 ± 3.34bcde
Tracer 200 ppm 16.67 ± 6.67ef 6.67 ± 3.33ef
Sc 1000 IJs 13.33 ± 3.33ef 3.33 ± 3.33ef
Sc 500 IJs 3.33 ± 3.33ef 0.00 ± 0.00f
Sc 200 IJs 0.00 ± 0.00f 0.00 ± 0.00f
Sc 100 IJs 0.00 ± 0.00f 0.00 ± 0.00f
Hi 1000 IJs 16.67 ± 6.6ef 10.00 ± 5.77ef
Hi 500 IJs 6.67 ± 3.33ef 3.33 ± 3.33ef
Hi 200 IJs 3.33 ± 3.33ef 0.00 ± 0.00f
Hi 100 IJs 0.00 ± 0.00f 0.00 ± 0.00f
Sc + TR 800 ppm 80.00 ± 5.77a 39.69 Synergistic 50.00 ± 5.77a 1.31 Additive
Sc + TR 400 ppm 53.33 ± 3.33bc 20.54 Synergistic 36.67 ± 6.67abc 1.81 Additive
Sc + TR 200 ppm 43.33 ± 3.34 cd 54.92 Synergistic 16.67 ± 6.67 cdef 1.54 Additive
Hi + TR 800 ppm 76.67 ± 3.33a 7.02 Synergistic 40.00 ± 5.77ab 16.73 Synergistic
Hi + TR 400 ppm 43.33 ± 3.34 cd 12.1 Synergistic 33.33 ± 3.33abcd 1.11 Additive
Hi + TR 200 ppm 23.33 ± 6.67de 1.87 Additive 13.33 ± 8.82def 0.00 Additive
Control 0.00 ± 0.00f 0.00 ± 0.00f
  1. *Treatments: TR = Tracer® 240SC, Sc = S. carpocapsae and Hi = H. indica; Sc + TR (S. carpocapsae 1000 IJs + respective concentration of insecticide), Hi + TR (H. indica 1000 IJs + respective concentration of insecticide), **sharing different letters are statistically different by the Tukey test at 5% Probability, ***interactive response between treatment mixtures: synergistic (χ2 > 3.84 and observed mortality > expected mortality), additive (χ2 < 3.84), and antagonistic (χ2 > 3.84 and observed mortality < expected mortality)