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Table 7 Damage reduction rate of top and root dry weight (%) and disease severity index values recorded by watermelon and melon seedlings inoculated with two M. phaseolina isolates and treated preventively by four Aspergillus spp. isolates, two Penicillium spp. isolates, and two Trichoderma spp. isolates in vivo assay

From: Evaluation of the efficiency of Trichoderma, Penicillium, and Aspergillus species as biological control agents against four soil-borne fungi of melon and watermelon

  Preventive treatment Damage reduction rate of shoot dry weight %a Damage reduction rate of root dry weight %a Disease severity indexa
Cultivars MP1 MP2 MP1 MP2 MP1 MP2
Watermelon A. flavus 14.88bb 19.39c 11.73c 19.40c 2.33a 2.67a
A. fumigatus 8.94c 22.19b 35.09b 50.18a 2.33a 1.83abc
A. niger 31.97ab 27.70b 15.92c 27.70b 2.33a 1.50bc
P. italicum 13.75b 20.87b 26.85bc 43.00ab 2.17b 2.17ab
P. digitatum 43.36ab 33.56b 27.78bc 33.57abc 1.67b 1.50ab
T. viride 40.42ab 44.22b 34.30b 44.22ab 1.33b 1.33abc
T. harzianum 51.11a 52.71a 54.33a 52.71a 1.50b 1.50c
P valuec   > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05
Melon A. flavus 3.69c 14.09c 18.31b 16.92d 1.33ab 2.00a
A. fumigatus 12.64c 28.40b 30.58ab 26.99cd 2.67a 1.33ab
A. niger 29.51ab 35.91b 26.29ab 37.35abc 1.50ab 1.33ab
P. italicum 7.38c 23.44c 20.25ab 27.90cd 1.50ab 1.50ab
P. digitatum 34.42a 39.51a 34.06a 33.30bcd 1.33ab 0.83b
T. viride 30.56ab 29.09b 35.41a 48.18ab 1.50ab 1.33ab
T. harzianum 27.80b 29.52b 37.23a 50.68a 1.33ab 0.50b
P valuec   > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05
  1. aDamage reduction rate values present the mean of three replicates (5 plants/replicate); R (%) = ((DWA − DWP) / DWA) × 100, where DWA is the dry weight (shoot and root) of inoculated plants with antagonist and DWP is the dry weight (shoot and root) of inoculated plant with only the pathogen and disease severity index scale, which present the mean of three replicates (5 plants/replicate)
  2. bDuncan’s multiple range test: means followed by different letters are significantly different at P ≤ 0.05