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Table 5 Damage reduction rate of shoot and root dry weight (%) and disease severity index values recorded by melon seedlings inoculated with two F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis isolates and treated preventively by four Aspergillus spp. isolates, two Penicillium spp. isolates, and two Trichoderma spp. in vivo assay

From: Evaluation of the efficiency of Trichoderma, Penicillium, and Aspergillus species as biological control agents against four soil-borne fungi of melon and watermelon

Antagonists Damage reduction rate of shoot dry weight %a Damage reduction rate of root dry weight %a Disease severity indexa
A. flavus 40.61ab 42.15a 51.89a 53.2a 0.33b 0.5b
A. fumigatus 39.89a 42.25a 49.63a 52.55a 0.5b 0.67b
A. niger 21.73bc 18.28b 34.6b 21.27c 1.67a 1.83a
A. terreus 36.66ab 37.75a 46.86ab 42.19ab 0.83ab 0.67b
P. italicum 27.19abc 20.49b 38.04b 32.53abc 1ab 1b
P. digitatum 37.81ab 32.68a 47.17ab 32.53abc 0.83ab 0.67b
T. viride 17.61c 12.59b 23.92b 23.92c 1ab 1.33ab
T. harzianum 28.75abc 32.97a 40.87b 40.46ab 1ab 0.5b
P valueb > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05
  1. aDamage reduction rate values present the mean of three replicates (5 plants/replicate); R (%) = ((DWA − DWP) / DWA) × 100, where DWA is the dry weight (shoot and root) of inoculated plants with antagonist and DWP is the dry weight (shoot and root) of inoculated plant with only the pathogen and disease severity index scale (Table 3), which present the mean of three replicates (5 plants/replicate)
  2. bDuncan’s multiple range test: values followed by different letters are significantly different at P ≤ 0.05