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Table 4 Effect of direct confrontation of two Penicillium spp. isolates, two Trichoderma spp. isolates, and four Aspergillus sp. isolates on mycelial growth inhibition of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis and M. phaseolina after 5 days of incubation at 28 °C, means of six Petri plates (two plates per replicate)

From: Evaluation of the efficiency of Trichoderma, Penicillium, and Aspergillus species as biological control agents against four soil-borne fungi of melon and watermelon



Mycelial growth inhibition percentage (%)a


P. digitatum

P. italicum

T. viride

T. harzianum

A. flavus

A. niger

A. fumigatus

A. terreus

P valueb

F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis


19.31b C

11.43c D

11.61c C

16.75b D

16.56b C

20.54b B

11.75b D

35.14a A

> 0.05


20.38a B

19.73b B

10.24c D

19.8b B

25.95a AB

21.6a AB

26.35a A

18.81b C

> 0.05


17.34b C

16.12b C

26.43a A

21.88a BC

22.1a BC

24.42a AB

21.26a BC

20.6a C

> 0.05


19.91b B

23.27a AB

22.55a AB

16.6b C

25.71a AB

30.46a A

15.19b C

24.51a AB

> 0.05


13.29c D

25.6b AB

8.71d D

23.31b C

36.59a A

27.86b AB

11.07c D

12.4c D

> 0.05

P valuec


> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05


M. phaseolina


48.01a A

36.22a A

42.43a A

42.38a A

23.77b B

29.33b B

35.97a A

21.84c B

> 0.05


38.54a B

35.39a B

38.15a B

52.42a A

33.51ab B

29.78a B

44.81a A

44.92a A

> 0.05


30.51ab A

46.63a A

37.90a B

46.21a A

42.56a A

30.63a B

24.54c C

24.64c C

> 0.05


27.09b C

43.97a A

33.27ab B

38.74b B

37.34a B

31.79a B

20.79c D

20.29cd D

> 0.05


35.14a B

31.95ab B

41.46a A

42.38a A

29.79b BC

27.29ab C

29.13bc BC

28.23b BC

> 0.05

P valuec


> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

> 0.05

  1. aMycelial growth inhibition percentage values; means of three replicates (two Petri plates per replicate). Duncan’s multiple range test: values followed by different letters are significantly different at P ≤ 0.05. Capital letters are for comparison of means in the same row. Small letters are for comparison of means in the same column
  2. bDuncan’s multiple range test is for comparison of means among fungal antagonists with the same pathogen on mycelial growth inhibition
  3. cDuncan’s multiple range test is for comparison of means among pathogens in the same fungal antagonist on mycelial growth inhibition