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Table 3 Effect of direct dual confrontation, of two Penicillium spp. isolates, three Trichoderma spp. isolates, and Aspergillus flavus, on mycelia growth inhibition of four F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum isolates and eight F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae isolates after 5 days of incubation at 28 °C, means of six Petri plates (two plates per replicate)

From: Evaluation of the efficiency of Trichoderma, Penicillium, and Aspergillus species as biological control agents against four soil-borne fungi of melon and watermelon

Pathogens Code Mycelial growth inhibition percentage (%)a  
P. digitatum P. italicum T. erinaceum T. viride T. helicum A. flavus P valuesb
F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum FON1 40.56b AB 28.90c AB 46.08ab A 41.29b A 39.91b A 56.73a AB > 0.05
FON2 32.10c BC 7.22d D 34.30b B 29.31c BC 31.00c AB 52.08a AB > 0.05
FON3 32.98b BC 28.97b AB 40.92b AB 38.54b A 32.23b AB 64.71a A 0.0425
FON4 39.55b AB 30.44b A 42.66b A 36.95b AB 40.00b A 74.68a A 0.0335
F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae FSC1 27.48bc C 21.89c C 37.08b AB 30.94bc B 29.23bc B 49.26a B > 0.05
FSC2 38.02b B 24.92c BC 25.04c C 17.08c C 19.21c B 49.60a B > 0.05
FSC3 44.65a A 26.19c B 21.83c CD 26.90c BC 17.44c C 48.94a B > 0.05
FSC4 39.13b AB 28.57c AB 25.57c C 14.20c C 20.00c B 46.25a B > 0.05
FSC5 28.35b C 25.21b B 26.13b C 31.00b B 24.91b B 48.89a B > 0.05
FSC6 24.00b C 24.09b BC 19.60b CD 18.57b C 19.84b B 46.93a B > 0.05
FSC7 35.85b B 24.27b BC 17.08bc D 10.93c D 19.28bc B 46.93a B > 0.05
FSC8 19.49b D 17.74b CD 24.54b C 15.34b C 22.00b B 46.25a B > 0.05
P valuesc   > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 > 0.05 < 0.05  
  1. aMycelial growth inhibition percentage values; means of three replicates (two Petri plates per replicate). Duncan’s multiple range test: values followed by different letters are significantly different at P ≤ 0.05. Capital letters are for comparison of means in the same column. Small letters are for comparison of means in the same row
  2. bDuncan’s multiple range test is for comparison of means among fungal antagonists with the same pathogen on mycelial growth inhibition
  3. cDuncan’s multiple range test is for comparison of means among pathogens in the same fungal antagonist on mycelial growth inhibition